Early in the year 1789 the French nation found itself in deep financial embarrassment; and this was speedily followed by calls for an issue of paper money. By August 1, 1795, some six years later, the gold 25 francs coin was worth in paper, 920 francs; on September 1st, 1,200 francs; on November 1st, 2,600 francs; on December 1st, 3,050 francs. In February, 1796, it was worth 7,200 francs or one franc in gold was worth 288 francs in paper. Prices of all commodities went up nearly in proportion. This story, of how a first world nation turned to paper money and destroyed itself, its people and its economy in the process, even arguably setting in motion the rise to power of Napoleon Bonaparte, is told in this book by Andrew Dickson White, academic, ambassador and author. As ever, history remains our best guide of what the future holds, and, considering our Fiat money system today, sounds a warning call that should be heeded.
Since John Bosch edited and published the first version of this book in 1995, the world of manufacturing and coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) and coordinate measuring systems (CMSs) has changed considerably. However, the basic physics of the machines has not changed in essence but have become more deeply understood. Completely revised and updated to reflect the change that have taken place in the last sixteen years,Coordinate Measuring Machines and Systems, Second Edition covers the evolution of measurements and development of standards, the use of CMMs, probing systems, algorithms and filters, performance and financial evaluations, and accuracy.
The book features two new editors, one from academia and one from a metrology intensive user industry, many new authors, and known experts who have grown with the field since the last version. Furnishing case studies from a wide range of installations, the book details how CMMs can best be applied to gain a competitive advantage in a variety of business settings.
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